Commit 3f7451d6 authored by uvkjt's avatar uvkjt
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Beautification and cleanup

parent 51e8b8d6
\chapter{Wahrscheinlichkeit und Statistik}
\section{Deskriptive Statistik}
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\BOOKMARK [0][-]{chapter.1}{Telematik}{}% 1
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.1}{Erinnerung aus Rechnernetze}{chapter.1}% 2
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.2}{Routers}{chapter.1}% 3
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.1}{Overview}{section.1.2}% 4
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.2}{The "Longest Prefix Matching" - LPM}{section.1.2}% 5
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.4}{Tries}{section.1.2}% 6
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.6}{Hash Tables}{section.1.2}% 7
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.7}{LPM in Hardware}{section.1.2}% 8
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.8}{Router Architecture}{section.1.2}% 9
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.2.9}{Packet Blocking}{section.1.2}% 10
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.3}{Internet Routing}{chapter.1}% 11
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.3.1}{Autonomous Systems - AS}{section.1.3}% 12
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.3.2}{Routing Protocols inside an AS - IGP}{section.1.3}% 13
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.3.3}{Observations between RIP and OSPF}{section.1.3}% 14
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.3.4}{Routing Protocols between AS-es - EGP}{section.1.3}% 15
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.4}{Label Switching}{chapter.1}% 16
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\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.5}{SDN}{chapter.1}% 21
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.5.1}{Basic SDN Operation}{section.1.5}% 22
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\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.5.5}{Power of Abstraction}{section.1.5}% 25
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.5.6}{SDN Challenges}{section.1.5}% 26
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.6}{Network Function Virtualization}{chapter.1}% 27
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.6.1}{Middlebox}{section.1.6}% 28
\BOOKMARK [1][-]{section.1.7}{Internet Congestion Control}{chapter.1}% 29
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.7.1}{Shared Resources}{section.1.7}% 30
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.7.2}{Optimization Criteria}{section.1.7}% 31
\BOOKMARK [2][-]{subsection.1.7.3}{Types of Congestion Control}{section.1.7}% 32
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\contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {1}Telematik}{3}{chapter.1}
\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.1}Erinnerung aus Rechnernetze}{3}{section.1.1}
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\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.1}Overview}{3}{subsection.1.2.1}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.2}The "Longest Prefix Matching" - \textit {LPM}}{4}{subsection.1.2.2}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Efficient data structures for LPM}{4}{section*.2}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.4}Tries}{4}{subsection.1.2.4}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Binary Trie and Path Compression}{5}{section*.3}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Fixed Stride Multibit Trie}{5}{section*.4}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline An overall Evaluation of all Tries}{6}{section*.5}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.6}Hash Tables}{6}{subsection.1.2.6}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.7}LPM in Hardware}{6}{subsection.1.2.7}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline RAM}{6}{section*.6}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Binary CAM}{6}{section*.7}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Ternary CAM}{6}{section*.8}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.2.8}Router Architecture}{7}{subsection.1.2.8}
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\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.3}Internet Routing}{7}{section.1.3}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.3.1}Autonomous Systems - \textit {AS}}{8}{subsection.1.3.1}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline AS Structure}{8}{section*.9}
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\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline RIP}{9}{section*.11}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline OSPF}{10}{section*.12}
\contentsline {subparagraph}{\nonumberline Hello Protocol}{11}{section*.13}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Coping with Scalability}{11}{section*.14}
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\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.4.2}Label Switching}{13}{subsection.1.4.2}
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\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Communication across LSP}{14}{section*.16}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline RSVP-TE - Resource ReserVation Protocol with Traffic Engineering}{14}{section*.17}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.4.4}VPN}{14}{subsection.1.4.4}
\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.5}SDN}{15}{section.1.5}
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\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Types of Flow Programming}{15}{section*.18}
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\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Overlap Treatment}{17}{section*.23}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Multiple Flow Table Case}{17}{section*.24}
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\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Packet Processing}{18}{section*.28}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.5.5}Power of Abstraction}{18}{subsection.1.5.5}
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\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.6}Network Function Virtualization}{19}{section.1.6}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.6.1}Middlebox}{19}{subsection.1.6.1}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Nework Address Translation - NAT}{19}{section*.32}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Web Caches}{19}{section*.33}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline Traditional Middlebox Deployment Problems}{19}{section*.34}
\contentsline {subsubsection}{\nonumberline NFV}{20}{section*.35}
\contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.7}Internet Congestion Control}{20}{section.1.7}
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\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.7.2}Optimization Criteria}{21}{subsection.1.7.2}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Efficency}{21}{section*.36}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Fairness}{21}{section*.37}
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\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Congestion Control Window \textit {CWnd}}{22}{section*.40}
\contentsline {paragraph}{\nonumberline Rate-based Congestion Control}{22}{section*.41}
\contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {1.7.4}TCP Tahoe}{22}{subsection.1.7.4}
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......@@ -65,6 +65,7 @@ According to the LPM method, (156.256...) is selected.
\subsubsection{Efficient data structures for LPM}
A good data structure should satisfy 3 requirements:
\begin{itemize}
\setlength\itemsep{-0.5em}
\item Fast Look-up
\item Low Memory
\item Fast updates
......@@ -72,13 +73,10 @@ A good data structure should satisfy 3 requirements:
\subsection{Tries}
\begin{prereq}
With these requirements a good data structure are \textit{Tries}. Some variables to enable comparisons later:
\begin{itemize}
\item N (Number of prefixes)
\item W (Length of prefix)
\item k (Length of stride - used in a type of trie, covered later)
\end{itemize}
With these requirements a good data structure are \textit{Tries}. Some variables needed:
$N$ (Number of prefixes), $W$ (Length of prefix), $k$ (Length of stride - used in a type of trie, covered later)
\end{prereq}
\clearpage
\subsubsection{Binary Trie and Path Compression}
The main idea is when an IP Look-up takes place, there is a tree-like structure that enables a bit by bit step down in the tree to find the right prefix. The chain of read bits that leads to a node defines the prefix (you can say that the prefix is contained in the node), and the tree branch contains the read bit. A good example is on \folie{F26S2}.
......@@ -101,7 +99,8 @@ Lets say you have a prefix table with the longest prefix of length \textit{l}.
\item In the end the sum of all strides $k_{1}...k_{i}$ should equal l.
\end{enumerate}
\end{example}
\clearpage
\subsubsection{An overall Evaluation of all Tries}
All speeds are measured worst case scenario. \par
{\centering
......@@ -156,6 +155,7 @@ The way a router is designed, a packet blocking situation can occur, where $>1$
\item \textbf{Back pressure} \\ Signal overload to input to reduce load
\item \textbf{Parallel switch fabric} \\ Multiple packet served at the same time to output port. But requires higher access speed to cope up the feed size from parallelism.
\end{itemize}
\clearpage
\section{Internet Routing}
\begin{prereq}
......@@ -211,9 +211,9 @@ There are 2 types of routing messages that RIP uses: \textbf{Request} and \textb
Each router itself, learns its neighbors and monitors their state. This way, the router gets to know the topology from its own standpoint and it independently computes the shortest path to everybody using this topology information (think of Dijkstra).\par
The metric in OSPF are \textbf{link costs}. A link cost, as an example can be the $\frac{Reference Bandwidth}{Interface Bandwidth}$ whereby links with higher bandwidths are preferred. This link cost together with the corresponding link neighbor, build the Link state. A router with multiple other connected routers, has therefor a table with multiple Links States for each router. The advertisement of this table is called the \textbf{Link state advertisement}, \textit{LSA}. A router distributes this LSA, in all of its interfaces (by flooding). A LSA has a \textit{header}(lsa metadata like id, seqnr, etc) and a \textit{body}(actual data like cost, type of link, etc)\par
\begin{figure}
\subfigure[LSA Table Example.]{\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{lsa.png}}
\subfigure[LSA Database Example.]{\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{lsadb.png}}
\begin{figure}[H]
\subfigure[LSA Table Example.]{\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{images/lsa.png}}
\subfigure[LSA Database Example.]{\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{images/lsadb.png}}
\end{figure}
LSAs from other routers, are stored in a database inside the router. With this database of tables, the router can build the correct topology to compute the shortest paths needed. An important aspect of OSPF is that every router in the network needs to be synchronized to the newest updates, otherwise they may compute wrong shortest paths. As a consequence every LSA in database has a \textit{lifetime} value. Its incremented over time, until it reaches a \textit{max age} value, which is then considered out-of-date. Therefore every router needs to refresh their LSA database every time interval defined by a \textit{LS Refresh Time} value.
......@@ -266,7 +266,7 @@ An overall interplay of IGP and EPG can be found on \folie{F115S3}.
\subsection{Flow}
\begin{wrapfigure}{r}{0.4\textwidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{flow.png}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{images/flow.png}
\caption{Typical flow 'granules', with combinations possible represented by dashed line}
\end{wrapfigure}
A flow is, in a coarse definition, some packets that somehow belong together. In technical terms it means: "\textit{a sequence of packets traversing a network that share a set of header field values}". By some granular definition, the could be packets belonging to a particular TCP connection, HTTPS traffic, VoIP traffic (of a particular sender), etc.
......@@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ Through the way data flows there arise 3 Types of Communication Networks \\
\begin{wrapfigure}{r}{0.4\textwidth}
\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{labelexmp.png}
\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{images/labelexmp.png}
\caption{\textit{Example of a Label Switching. The edge router assigns/deletes labels, and within the domain labels are changed through switching devices}}
\end{wrapfigure}
......@@ -374,7 +374,7 @@ There are 2 Main Types:
\begin{figure}[H]
\centering
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{sdnarch.png}
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{images/sdnarch.png}
\caption{Overview of a SDN Network}
\end{figure}
......@@ -387,8 +387,8 @@ There are 2 Main Types:
The commands represented here are in pseudo-code (very much like JAVA).
\begin{figure}[H]
\subfigure[Possible Match Commands]{\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{matchovr.png}}
\subfigure[Possible Action Commands]{\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{actovr.png}}
\subfigure[Possible Match Commands]{\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{images/matchovr.png}}
\subfigure[Possible Action Commands]{\includegraphics[scale=0.25]{images/actovr.png}}
\end{figure}
\paragraph{Overlap Treatment} In case of overlapping flows (where 2 flows are responsible for the same input) a special command \code{r.PRIORITY(int p)} sets a priority \code{p} to some flow, so that a overlap does not occur, because the higher priority rule will be selected.
......@@ -415,7 +415,6 @@ OpenFlow is a standard for SDN southbound interfaces. It defines a protocol for
\end{itemize}
\paragraph{Flow Table In OpenFlow}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}
\hline
\code{Match Field} & \code{Priority} & \code{Actions} & \code{Counters} & \code{Timeouts} & \code{Cookie} & \code{Flags} \\
......@@ -489,7 +488,7 @@ TCP Data transfer (Byte-oriented sequence numbers, Go-back-N with Positive cumul
\begin{wrapfigure}{r}{0.4\textwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[scale=0.35]{cong.png}
\includegraphics[scale=0.35]{images/cong.png}
\caption{\textit{Load vs. Goodput graph}}
\end{wrapfigure}
......@@ -508,7 +507,7 @@ $F(r_1, ... , r_n) = \dfrac{{(\sum_{i}^{n} r_i)}^2}{n{(\sum_{i}^{n} r_i)}^2} \in
\paragraph{Convergence}
\begin{wrapfigure}{r}{0.5\textwidth}
\centering
\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{conv.png}
\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{images/conv.png}
\end{wrapfigure}
Both \textbf{Responsiveness} (Speed with which $r_i$ gets to equilibrium rate at knee after starting from zero) and \textbf{Smoothness} (Oscillations around equilibrium at steady state) should be minimal.
\paragraph{Distributedness}
......
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