Commit f179857c authored by uvkjt's avatar uvkjt
Browse files

Telematik updates

parent 73e36a1c
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......@@ -195,3 +195,19 @@ There are 2 forms of peering:
\item \textbf{Public} \\ You can either connect directly or use an \textbf{IXP}. An IXP operates on L2 and it forwards the data you sent for a destination AS, by correctly routing the data to it. It acts as really big switch between you an the other AS to enable the direct communication. \textit{Do not mix it with a transit AS as it is not one!}.
\end{enumerate}
\subsection{Routing Protocols between AS-es}
There are two main RP: An interior AS routing protocols (IGP) or an exterior between AS-es routing protocol (EGP). IGPs are usually distance vector based or link state algorithms, meaning they are both metric based. RIP and OSPD are the most widespread IGP.
\subsubsection{RIP}
Its a very simple protocol developed in 1998. There is an application that manages the routing table inside the router and communicates routing messages with others via UDP, therefore its not reliable. Its metric are hops, and they count from 1 to 15 with $>$15 meaning infinity, and this is used to prevent count to infinity loops, if that were to happen. \par
There are 2 types of routing messages that RIP uses: \textbf{Request} and \textbf{Response} messages. A request message is typically sent when a router needs the full routing table information from the neighbors, while a response message is divided into \textit{Broadcast Responses} that are sent over the network in a 30s interval (this 30s thing is important as when a router does not get the broadcast in this 30s time window from some router, this router is abandoned and not used) and \textit{Triggered Responses} which are sent when a table entry has changed its information and its communicated to all others.
\subsubsection{OSPF}
Each router itself, learns its neighbors and monitors their state. This way, the router gets to know the topology from its own standpoint and it independently computes the shortest path to everybody using this topology information (think of Dijkstra).\par
The metric in OSPF are \textbf{link costs}. A link cost, as an example can be the $\frac{Reference Bandwidth}{Interface Bandwidth}$ whereby links with higher bandwidths are preferred. This link cost together with the corresponding link neighbor, build the Link state. A router with multiple other connected routers, has therefor a table with multiple Links States for each router. The advertisement of this table is called the \textbf{Link state advertisement}, LSA. A router distributes this LSA, in all of its interfaces. A LSA has a \textit{header}(lsa metadata like id, seqnr, etc) and a \textit{body}(actual data like cost, type of link, etc)\par
LSAs from other routers, are stored in a database inside the router. With this database of tables, the router can build the correct topology to compute the shortest paths needed. An important aspect of OSPF is that every router in the network needs to be synchronized to the newest updates, otherwise they may compute wrong shortest paths. As a consequence every LSA in database has a \textit{lifetime} value. Its incremented over time, until it reaches a \textit{max age} value, which is then considered out-of-date. Therefore every router needs to refresh their LSA database every time interval defined by a \textit{LS Refresh Time} value.
\paragraph{Hello Protocol}
In OSPF a router periodically sends a hello message on all its links, to check for identity and liveliness of neighboring routers. On the other end if a hello message is received and contains its identifier, the link is considered up. If no hello message is received for a pre-defined period of time the link is considered to be down. \par
A Hello message contains own router ID and a router ID of the neighboring router, if known. If not yet known, neighboring router ID is set to 0.0.0.0. Its destination IP is 224.0.0.5 aka multicast address. All working together on \folie{F68S3}.
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