typerep.h 67 KB
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/*
 * This file is part of libFirm.
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 * Copyright (C) 2012 University of Karlsruhe.
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 */
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/**
 * @file
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 * @brief Declarations for functions and datastructures to represent types
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 */
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#ifndef FIRM_TYPEREP_H
#define FIRM_TYPEREP_H

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#include <stddef.h>

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#include "firm_types.h"

#include "begin.h"
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/**
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 * @defgroup ir_entity Entities
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 *
 * An entity is the representation of program known objects in Firm.
 * The primary concept of entities is to represent members of complex
 * types, i.e., fields and methods of classes.  As not all programming
 * language model all variables and methods as members of some class,
 * the concept of entities is extended to cover also local and global
 * variables, and arbitrary procedures.
 *
 * An entity always specifies the type of the object it represents and
 * the type of the object it is a part of, the owner of the entity.
 * Originally this is the type of the class of which the entity is a
 * member.
 * The owner of local variables is the procedure they are defined in.
 * The owner of global variables and procedures visible in the whole
 * program is a universally defined class type "GlobalType".  The owner
 * of procedures defined in the scope of an other procedure is the
 * enclosing procedure.
 *
 * The type ir_entity is an abstract data type to represent program entities.
 * If contains the following attributes:
 *
 *   - owner:      A compound type this entity is a part of.
 *   - type:       The type of this entity.
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 *   - name:       The string that represents this entity in the source program
 *   - linkage:    A flag indicating how the linker treats a symbol
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 *   - offset:     The offset of the entity within the compound object in bytes.  Only set
 *                 if the owner in the state "layout_fixed".
 *   - offset_bits_remainder:   The offset bit remainder of a bitfield entity (in a compound)
 *                 in bits.  Only set if the owner in the state "layout_fixed".
 *   - overwrites: A list of entities overwritten by this entity.  This list is only
 *                 existent if the owner of this entity is a class.  The members in
 *                 this list must be entities of super classes.
 *   - overwrittenby: A list of entities that overwrite this entity.  This list is only
 *                 existent if the owner of this entity is a class.  The members in
 *                 this list must be entities of sub classes.
 *   - link:       A void* to associate some additional information with the entity.
 *   - irg:        If the entity is a method this is the ir graph that represents the
 *                 code of the method.
 *   - visited:    visited flag.  Master flag is type_visited.
 *
 * These fields can only be accessed via access functions.
 *
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 * Overwrites is a field that specifies that an access to the overwritten
 * entity in the supertype must use this entity.  It's a list as with
 * multiple inheritance several entities can be overwritten.  This field
 * is mostly useful for method entities.
 * If a Sel node selects an entity that is overwritten by other entities it
 * must return a pointer to the entity of the dynamic type of the pointer
 * that is passed to it.  Lowering of the Sel node must assure this.
 * Overwrittenby is the inverse of overwrites.  Both add routines add
 * both relations, they only differ in the order of arguments.
 *
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 * @{
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 */

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/**
 * Visibility classed for entities.
 */
typedef enum {
	/**
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	 * The entity is visible across compilation units. It might have an
	 * initializer/graph.
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	 * Note that entities with visibility_external without initializer are
	 * assumed to be defined in another compilation unit (not like C variables
	 * which are considered 'uninitialized' in this case).
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	 */
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	ir_visibility_external,
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	/**
	 * The entity is visible across compilation units, but not accross modules.
	 * This is equivalent to __attribute__((visibility("hidden"))) in gcc.
	 */
	ir_visibility_external_private,
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	/**
	 * The entity is local to the compilation unit.
	 * A local entity is not visible in other compilation units.
	 * Note that the entity might still be accessed indirectly from other units
	 * through pointers.
	 */
	ir_visibility_local,
	/**
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	 * This has the same semantic as visibility_local. Additionally the symbol
	 * is completely hidden from the linker (it only appears in the assembly).
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	 * While visibility_local is probably still visible to debuggers,
	 * visibility_private symbols aren't and probably won't appear in the object
	 * files
	 */
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	ir_visibility_private,
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} ir_visibility;

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/**
 * linkage specifies how the linker treats symbols
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 */
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typedef enum ir_linkage {
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	IR_LINKAGE_DEFAULT         = 0,
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	/**
	 * A symbol whose definition won't change in a program.
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	 * Optimization might replace loads from this entity with constants.
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	 * Also most linkers put such data in a constant segment which is shared
	 * between multiple running instances of the same application.
	 */
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	IR_LINKAGE_CONSTANT        = 1 << 0,
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	/**
	 * The entity is a weak symbol.
	 * A weak symbol is overridden by a non-weak symbol if one exists.
	 * Most linkers only support the IR_LINKAGE_WEAK in combination with
	 * IR_LINKAGE_MERGE.
	 */
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	IR_LINKAGE_WEAK            = 1 << 1,
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	/**
	 * The entity may be removed when it isn't referenced anywhere in the
	 * compilation unit even if it is exported (non-local).
	 * Typically used for C++ instantiated template code (,,COMDAT'' section).
	 */
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	IR_LINKAGE_GARBAGE_COLLECT = 1 << 2,
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	/**
	 * The linker will try to merge entities with same name from different
	 * compilation units. This is the usual behaviour for global variables
	 * without explicit initialisation in C (``COMMON'' symbols). It's also
	 * typically used in C++ for instantiated template code (,,COMDAT'' section)
	 */
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	IR_LINKAGE_MERGE           = 1 << 3,
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	/**
	 * Some entity uses are potentially hidden from the compiler.
	 * (For example because they happen in an asm("") statement. This flag
	 *  should be set for __attribute__((used)) in C code).
	 * Setting this flag prohibits that the compiler making assumptions about
	 * read/write behaviour to global variables or changing calling conventions
	 * from cdecl to fastcall.
	 */
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	IR_LINKAGE_HIDDEN_USER     = 1 << 4,
	/**
	 * Do not generate code even if the entity has a graph attached. The graph
	 * is only used for inlining. Otherwise the entity is regarded as a
	 * declaration of an externally defined entity.
	 * This linkage flag can be used to implement C99 "inline" or GNU89
	 * "extern inline".
	 */
	IR_LINKAGE_NO_CODEGEN      = 1 << 5,
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} ir_linkage;
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ENUM_BITSET(ir_linkage)
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/**
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 * Returns the visibility class of an entity
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 */
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FIRM_API ir_visibility get_entity_visibility(const ir_entity *entity);
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/**
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 * Sets visibility class of an entity
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 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_visibility(ir_entity *entity, ir_visibility visibility);
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/**
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 * Returns 1 if the entity is visible outside the current compilation unit
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 * or to unknown callers (like asm statements).
 * (The entity might still be accessible indirectly through pointers)
 * This is a convenience function and does the same as
 * get_entity_visibility(entity) != ir_visibility_local ||
 * (get_entity_linkage(entity) & IR_LINKAGE_HIDDEN_USER)
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 */
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FIRM_API int entity_is_externally_visible(const ir_entity *entity);
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/**
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 * Returns 1 if the entity has a definition (initializer) in the current
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 * compilation unit. Note that this function returns false if
 * IR_LINKAGE_NO_CODEGEN is set even if a graph is present.
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 */
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FIRM_API int entity_has_definition(const ir_entity *entity);
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/**
 * Creates a new entity.
 *
 * Automatically inserts the entity as a member of owner.
 * Entity is automatic_allocated and uninitialized except if the type
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 * is type_method, then it is static_allocated and constant.
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 * Visibility is local, offset -1, and it is not volatile.
 */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *new_entity(ir_type *owner, ident *name, ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * Creates a new entity corresponding to a function parameter.
 * This must be created on an irgs frame_type
 */
FIRM_API ir_entity *new_parameter_entity(ir_type *owner, size_t pos,
                                         ir_type *type);

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/**
 * Creates a new entity aliasing another entity.
 * An aliasing entity is a logically separate entity with its own name,
 * but instead of having a definition the linker will merge the name with
 * the definition of the aliased entity.
 * In gcc this feature is known as __attribute__((alias())).
 *
 * @param owner  owning type (must be a global segment)
 * @param name   name of the entity
 * @param alias  entity that is aliased
 * @param type   type of the aliased entity, should but need not be the same
 *               type as the one of the aliased entity
 * @return       the newly created entity
 */
FIRM_API ir_entity *new_alias_entity(ir_type *owner, ident *name,
                                     ir_entity *alias, ir_type *type);

/**
 * Sets the entity an alias entity aliases.
 */
FIRM_API void set_entity_alias(ir_entity *alias, ir_entity *aliased);

/**
 * Returns the entity aliased by an alias entity.
 */
FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_alias(const ir_entity *alias);

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/**
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 * Check an entity.
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 *
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 * @return non-zero if no errors were found
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 */
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FIRM_API int check_entity(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Copies the entity if the new_owner is different from the
 * owner of the old entity,  else returns the old entity.
 *
 * Automatically inserts the new entity as a member of owner.
 * Resets the overwrites/overwritten_by fields.
 * Keeps the old atomic value.
 */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *copy_entity_own(ir_entity *old, ir_type *new_owner);
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/**
 * Copies the entity if the new_name is different from the
 * name of the old entity, else returns the old entity.
 *
 * Automatically inserts the new entity as a member of owner.
 * The mangled name ld_name is set to NULL.
 * Overwrites relation is copied from old.
 */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *copy_entity_name(ir_entity *old, ident *new_name);
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/**
 * Frees the entity.
 *
 * The owner will still contain the pointer to this
 * entity, as well as all other references!
 */
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FIRM_API void free_entity(ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns the name of an entity. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_entity_name(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns the ident of an entity. */
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FIRM_API ident *get_entity_ident(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the ident of the entity. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_ident(ir_entity *ent, ident *id);
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/** Returns the mangled name of the entity.
 *
 * If the mangled name is set it returns the existing name.
 * Else it generates a name with mangle_entity()
 * and remembers this new name internally.
 */
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FIRM_API ident *get_entity_ld_ident(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the mangled name of the entity. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_ld_ident(ir_entity *ent, ident *ld_ident);
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/** Returns the mangled name of the entity as a string. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_entity_ld_name(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** returns 1 if the entity has an ld_ident set explicitely */
FIRM_API int entity_has_ld_ident(const ir_entity *entity);

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/** Returns the owner of the entity. */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_entity_owner(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Sets the owner field in entity to owner.
 * Automatically removes entity from old owner type and adds it to the new
 * one.
 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_owner(ir_entity *ent, ir_type *owner);
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/** Returns the type of an entity. */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_entity_type(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the type of an entity. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_type(ir_entity *ent, ir_type *tp);
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/** Returns the linkage of an entity. */
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FIRM_API ir_linkage get_entity_linkage(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Sets the linkage flags of entity @p entity to @p linkage. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_linkage(ir_entity *entity, ir_linkage linkage);
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/** Adds linkage flags @p linkage to entity @p entity. */
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FIRM_API void add_entity_linkage(ir_entity *entity, ir_linkage linkage);
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/** Remove linkage flags @p linkage from entity @p entity. */
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FIRM_API void remove_entity_linkage(ir_entity *entity, ir_linkage linkage);
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/**
 * Returns the volatility of an entity.
 * @deprecated
 */
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FIRM_API ir_volatility get_entity_volatility(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Sets the volatility of an entity.
 * @deprecated
 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_volatility(ir_entity *ent, ir_volatility vol);
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/** Returns the name of the volatility. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_volatility_name(ir_volatility var);
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/** Returns alignment of entity in bytes */
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FIRM_API unsigned get_entity_alignment(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Allows you to override the type alignment for an entity.
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 * @param entity      the entity
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 * @param alignment   alignment in bytes
 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_alignment(ir_entity *entity, unsigned alignment);
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/**
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 * Returns indication whether entity is aligned in memory.
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 * @deprecated
 */
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FIRM_API ir_align get_entity_aligned(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
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 * Sets indication whether entity is aligned in memory
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 * @deprecated
 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_aligned(ir_entity *ent, ir_align a);
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/** Returns the name of the alignment. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_align_name(ir_align a);
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/** Returns the offset of an entity (in a compound) in bytes. Only set if
 * layout = fixed. */
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FIRM_API int get_entity_offset(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Sets the offset of an entity (in a compound) in bytes. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_offset(ir_entity *entity, int offset);
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/** For bitfields, returns the offset in bits to the bitfield base. */
FIRM_API unsigned get_entity_bitfield_offset(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Sets the offset in bits to the base for a bitfield. */
FIRM_API void set_entity_bitfield_offset(ir_entity *entity, unsigned offset);

/** Sets the size in bits for a bitfield. 0 means not a bitfield. */
FIRM_API void set_entity_bitfield_size(ir_entity *entity, unsigned size);

/** Returns the size in bits for a bitfield, 0 if entity is not a bitfield. */
FIRM_API unsigned get_entity_bitfield_size(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Returns the stored intermediate information. */
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FIRM_API void *get_entity_link(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Stores new intermediate information. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_link(ir_entity *ent, void *l);
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/**
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 * Return the method graph of a method entity.
 * @warning If it is a weak symbol, then this is not necessarily the final code
 *          bound to the entity. If you are writing an analysis use
 *          get_entity_linktime_irg()!
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 */
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FIRM_API ir_graph *get_entity_irg(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Return the method graph the method entity points to after linking.
 * This is different to get_entity_irg() in case of weak symbols where this
 * function returns NULL because the code may be replaced by a non-weak symbol
 * after linking.
 */
FIRM_API ir_graph *get_entity_linktime_irg(const ir_entity *ent);

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/** A reserved value for "not yet set". */
#define IR_VTABLE_NUM_NOT_SET ((unsigned)(-1))

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/** Returns the entity vtable number. */
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FIRM_API unsigned get_entity_vtable_number(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the entity vtable number. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_vtable_number(ir_entity *ent, unsigned vtable_number);
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/** Sets label number of an entity with code type */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_label(ir_entity *ent, ir_label_t label);
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/** Returns label number of an entity with code type */
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FIRM_API ir_label_t get_entity_label(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Checks if an entity is compiler generated. */
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FIRM_API int is_entity_compiler_generated(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets/resets the compiler generated flag. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_compiler_generated(ir_entity *ent, int flag);
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/**
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 * Bitfield type indicating the way an entity is used.
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 */
typedef enum {
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	ir_usage_none             = 0,      /**< This entity is unused. */
	ir_usage_address_taken    = 1 << 0, /**< The address of this entity was taken. */
	ir_usage_write            = 1 << 1, /**< The entity was written to. */
	ir_usage_read             = 1 << 2, /**< The entity was read. */
	ir_usage_reinterpret_cast = 1 << 3, /**< The entity was read but with a wrong mode
	                                         (an implicit reinterpret cast) */
	/** Unknown access */
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	ir_usage_unknown
		= ir_usage_address_taken | ir_usage_write | ir_usage_read
		| ir_usage_reinterpret_cast
} ir_entity_usage;

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/** Returns the entity usage */
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FIRM_API ir_entity_usage get_entity_usage(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets/resets the state of the address taken flag of an entity. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_usage(ir_entity *ent, ir_entity_usage flag);
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/**
 * Returns the debug information of an entity.
 *
 * @param ent The entity.
 */
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FIRM_API dbg_info *get_entity_dbg_info(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Sets the debug information of an entity.
 *
 * @param ent The entity.
 * @param db  The debug info.
 */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_dbg_info(ir_entity *ent, dbg_info *db);
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/**
 * Sepcial parameter number which can be used for parameter entities to
 * indicate the first non-declared parameter in a procedure with variable
 * arguments.
 * We assumes that all additional parameters for variable parameters are on the
 * stack. Starting from this address you can walk the stack to find all other
 * parameters.
 */
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#define IR_VA_START_PARAMETER_NUMBER  ((size_t)-1)

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/**
 * returns true if a given entity is a parameter_entity representing the
 * address of a function parameter
 */
FIRM_API int is_parameter_entity(const ir_entity *entity);

/**
 * returns number of parameter a parameter entitiy represents
 */
FIRM_API size_t get_entity_parameter_number(const ir_entity *entity);

/**
 * set number of parameter an entity represents
 */
FIRM_API void set_entity_parameter_number(ir_entity *entity, size_t n);

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/** Returns initial value of entity with atomic type @p ent. */
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FIRM_API ir_node *get_atomic_ent_value(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets initial value of entity with atomic type @p ent to node @p val.
 * @note @p val must be a node in the const_code graph */
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FIRM_API void set_atomic_ent_value(ir_entity *ent, ir_node *val);
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/** @defgroup ir_initializer  Entity Initializers
 * @{
 */

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/** the kind (type) of an initializer */
typedef enum ir_initializer_kind_t {
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	/** initializer containing an ir_node from the const-code irg */
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	IR_INITIALIZER_CONST,
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	/** initializer containing a tarval */
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	IR_INITIALIZER_TARVAL,
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	/** initializes type with default values (usually 0) */
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	IR_INITIALIZER_NULL,
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	/** list of initializers used to initializer a compound or array type */
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	IR_INITIALIZER_COMPOUND
} ir_initializer_kind_t;

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/** Returns kind of an initializer */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_kind_t get_initializer_kind(const ir_initializer_t *initializer);
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/** Returns the name of the initializer kind. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_initializer_kind_name(ir_initializer_kind_t ini);
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/**
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 * Returns the null initializer (there's only one instance of it in a program )
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 */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *get_initializer_null(void);
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/**
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 * Creates an initializer containing a reference to a node on the const-code
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 * irg.
 */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *create_initializer_const(ir_node *value);
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/** Creates an initializer containing a single tarval value */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *create_initializer_tarval(ir_tarval *tv);
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/** Returns value contained in a const initializer */
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FIRM_API ir_node *get_initializer_const_value(const ir_initializer_t *initializer);
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/** Returns value contained in a tarval initializer */
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FIRM_API ir_tarval *get_initializer_tarval_value(const ir_initializer_t *initialzier);
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/** Creates a compound initializer which holds @p n_entries entries */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *create_initializer_compound(size_t n_entries);
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/** Returns the number of entries in a compound initializer */
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FIRM_API size_t get_initializer_compound_n_entries(const ir_initializer_t *initializer);
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/** Sets entry with index @p index to the initializer @p value */
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FIRM_API void set_initializer_compound_value(ir_initializer_t *initializer,
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                                             size_t index,
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                                             ir_initializer_t *value);
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/** Returns the value with index @p index of a compound initializer */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *get_initializer_compound_value(
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		const ir_initializer_t *initializer, size_t index);
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/** @} */

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/** Sets the new style initializers of an entity. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_initializer(ir_entity *entity, ir_initializer_t *initializer);
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/** Returns the new style initializers of an entity. */
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FIRM_API ir_initializer_t *get_entity_initializer(const ir_entity *entity);
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/** Adds entity @p ent to the list of entities that overwrite @p overwritten. */
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FIRM_API void add_entity_overwrites(ir_entity *ent, ir_entity *overwritten);
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/** Returns the number of entities in the list of entities that overwrite
 * entity @p ent. */
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FIRM_API size_t get_entity_n_overwrites(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns index of @p overwritten in list of entities overwriting entity
 * @p ent. */
FIRM_API size_t get_entity_overwrites_index(const ir_entity *ent,
                                            ir_entity *overwritten);
/** Returns entry @p pos in list of entities overwriting entity @p ent. */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_overwrites(const ir_entity *ent, size_t pos);
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/** Sets entry @p pos in list of entities overwriting entity @p ent. */
FIRM_API void set_entity_overwrites(ir_entity *ent, size_t pos,
                                    ir_entity *overwritten);
/** Remove @p overwritten from list of entities overwriting entity @p ent. */
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FIRM_API void remove_entity_overwrites(ir_entity *ent, ir_entity *overwritten);
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/** Returns number of entities overwritten by @p ent. */
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FIRM_API size_t get_entity_n_overwrittenby(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns index of @p overwrites in list of entities overwritten by entity
 * @p ent. */
FIRM_API size_t get_entity_overwrittenby_index(const ir_entity *ent,
                                               ir_entity *overwrites);
/** Return entry @p pos in list of entities overwritten by entity @p ent. */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_overwrittenby(const ir_entity *ent, size_t pos);
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/** Sets entry @p pos in list of entities overwritten by entity @p ent. */
FIRM_API void set_entity_overwrittenby(ir_entity *ent, size_t pos,
                                       ir_entity *overwrites);
/** Removes entry @p overwrites in list of entities overwritten by @p ent. */
FIRM_API void remove_entity_overwrittenby(ir_entity *ent,
                                          ir_entity *overwrites);
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/** Returns true if the type of the entity is a primitive, pointer
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 * or method type.
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 *
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 * @note This is a different classification than from is_primitive_type().
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 */
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FIRM_API int is_atomic_entity(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns true if the type of the entity is a class, structure,
   array or union type. */
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FIRM_API int is_compound_entity(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns true if the entity is a method entity. */
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FIRM_API int is_method_entity(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns true if the entity is an alias entity. */
FIRM_API int is_alias_entity(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Outputs a unique number for this entity if libfirm is compiled for
 *  debugging, (configure with --enable-debug) else returns the address
 *  of the type cast to long.
 */
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FIRM_API long get_entity_nr(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns the entities visited counter.
 * @see @ref visited_counters */
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FIRM_API ir_visited_t get_entity_visited(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the entities visited counter.
 * @see @ref visited_counters */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_visited(ir_entity *ent, ir_visited_t num);
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/** Marks entity as visited.
 * @see @ref visited_counters */
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FIRM_API void mark_entity_visited(ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns true if this entity was visited.
 * @see @ref visited_counters */
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FIRM_API int entity_visited(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Returns true if this entity was not visited.
 * @see @ref visited_counters */
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FIRM_API int entity_not_visited(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Return true if this entity can be queried for additional properties.
 *
 * This is possible for method and alias entities.
 */
FIRM_API int entity_has_additional_properties(const ir_entity *entity);

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/**
 * Returns the mask of the additional entity properties.
 * The properties are automatically inherited from the irg if available
 * or from the method type if they were not set using
 * set_entity_additional_properties() or
 * set_entity_additional_property().
 */
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FIRM_API mtp_additional_properties get_entity_additional_properties(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Sets the mask of the additional graph properties. */
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FIRM_API void set_entity_additional_properties(ir_entity *ent,
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                                               mtp_additional_properties prop);
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/** Sets additional graph properties. */
FIRM_API void add_entity_additional_properties(ir_entity *ent,
                                               mtp_additional_properties flag);
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/**
 * @page unknown_entity  The Unknown entity
 *
 *  This entity is an auxiliary entity dedicated to support analyses.
 *
 *  The unknown entity represents that there could be an entity, but it is not
 *  known.  This entity can be used to initialize fields before an analysis (not known
 *  yet) or to represent the top of a lattice (could not be determined).  There exists
 *  exactly one entity unknown. This entity has as owner and as type the unknown type. It is
 *  allocated when initializing the entity module.
 *
 *  The entity can take the role of any entity, also methods.  It returns default
 *  values in these cases.
 *
 *  The following values are set:
 *
 * - name          = "unknown_entity"
 * - ld_name       = "unknown_entity"
 * - owner         = unknown_type
 * - type          = unknown_type
 * - offset        = -1
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 * - value         = Address(unknown_entity)
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 * - values        = NULL
 * - val_paths     = NULL
 * - volatility    = volatility_non_volatile
 * - stickyness    = stickyness_unsticky
 * - ld_name       = NULL
 * - overwrites    = NULL
 * - overwrittenby = NULL
 * - irg           = NULL
 * - link          = NULL
 */
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/** Returns the @link unknown_entity unknown entity @endlink. */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_unknown_entity(void);
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/** Tests whether entity @p entity is (the) unknown entity.
 * @returns 1 if it is the unknown entity, 0 otherwise */
FIRM_API int is_unknown_entity(const ir_entity *entity);

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/** @} */

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/** Encodes how a pointer parameter is accessed. */
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typedef enum ptr_access_kind {
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	ptr_access_none  = 0,                                 /**< no access */
	ptr_access_read  = 1,                                 /**< read access */
	ptr_access_write = 2,                                 /**< write access */
	ptr_access_rw    = ptr_access_read|ptr_access_write,  /**< read AND write access */
	ptr_access_store = 4,                                 /**< the pointer is stored */
	ptr_access_all   = ptr_access_rw|ptr_access_store     /**< all possible access */
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} ptr_access_kind;
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ENUM_BITSET(ptr_access_kind)
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/**
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 * @defgroup ir_type Type System
 *
 *  Datastructure to hold type information.
 *
 *  This module supplies a datastructure to represent all types
 *  known in the compiled program.  This includes types specified
 *  in the program as well as types defined by the language.  In the
 *  view of the intermediate representation there is no difference
 *  between these types.  Finally it specifies some auxiliary types.
 *
 *  There exist several kinds of types, arranged by the structure of
 *  the type.  A type is described by a set of attributes.  Some of
 *  these attributes are common to all types, others depend on the
 *  kind of the type.
 *
 *  Types are different from the modes defined in irmode:  Types are
 *  on the level of the programming language, modes at the level of
 *  the target processor.
 *
 * @{
 */

/**
 * @defgroup tp_op  Type Opcodes
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 *  This module specifies the kinds of types available in firm.
 *
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 *  They are called type opcodes. These include classes, structs, methods,
 *  unions, arrays, pointers and primitive types.
 *  Special types with own opcodes are the id type, a type representing an
 *  unknown type and a type used to specify that something has no type.
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 *
 * @{
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 */

/**
 *  An enum for the type kinds.
 *  For each type kind exists a typecode to identify it.
 */
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typedef enum tp_opcode {
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	tpo_uninitialized = 0,   /* not a type opcode */
	tpo_class,               /**< A class type. */
	tpo_struct,              /**< A struct type. */
	tpo_method,              /**< A method type. */
	tpo_union,               /**< An union type. */
	tpo_array,               /**< An array type. */
	tpo_pointer,             /**< A pointer type. */
	tpo_primitive,           /**< A primitive type. */
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	tpo_code,                /**< a piece of code (a basic block) */
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	tpo_unknown,             /**< Special code for the Unknown type. */
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	tpo_last = tpo_unknown   /* not a type opcode */
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} tp_opcode;

/**
 * A structure containing information about a kind of type.
 * A structure containing information about a kind of type.  So far
 * this is only the kind name, an enum for case-switching and some
 * internal values.
 *
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typedef struct tp_op tp_op;


/**
 * Returns the string for the type opcode.
 *
 * @param op  The type opcode to get the string from.
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 * @return    a string.
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 */
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FIRM_API const char *get_tpop_name(const tp_op *op);
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/**
 * Returns an enum for the type opcode.
 *
 * @param op   The type opcode to get the enum from.
 * @return the enum.
 */
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FIRM_API tp_opcode get_tpop_code(const tp_op *op);
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/** @} */
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/** Returns true if low is subclass of high.
 *
 *  Low is a subclass of high if low == high or if low is a subclass of
 *  a subclass of high.  I.e, we search in all subtypes of high for low.
 *  @@@ this can be implemented more efficient if we know the set of all
 *  subclasses of high.  */
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FIRM_API int is_SubClass_of(const ir_type *low, const ir_type *high);
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/** Subclass check for pointers to classes.
 *
 *  Dereferences at both types the same amount of pointer types (as
 *  many as possible).  If the remaining types are both class types
 *  and subclasses, returns true, else false.  Can also be called with
 *  two class types.  */
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FIRM_API int is_SubClass_ptr_of(ir_type *low, ir_type *high);
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/** Returns true if high is superclass of low.
 *
 *  Low is a subclass of high if low == high or if low is a subclass of
 *  a subclass of high.  I.e, we search in all subtypes of high for low.
 *  @@@ this can be implemented more efficient if we know the set of all
 *  subclasses of high.  */
#define is_SuperClass_of(high, low) is_SubClass_of(low, high)

/** Superclass check for pointers to classes.
 *
 *  Dereferences at both types the same amount of pointer types (as
 *  many as possible).  If the remaining types are both class types
 *  and superclasses, returns true, else false.  Can also be called with
 *  two class types.  */
#define is_SuperClass_ptr_of(low, high) is_SubClass_ptr_of(high, low)

/** Returns true if high is (transitive) overwritten by low.
 *
 *  Returns false if high == low. */
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FIRM_API int is_overwritten_by(ir_entity *high, ir_entity *low);
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/** Resolve polymorphism in the inheritance relation.
 *
 *  Returns the dynamically referenced entity if the static entity and the
 *  dynamic type are given.
 *  Searches downwards in overwritten tree. */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *resolve_ent_polymorphy(ir_type *dynamic_class,
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                                           ir_entity* static_ent);
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/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* The transitive closure of the subclass/superclass and                   */
/* overwrites/overwrittenby relation.                                      */
/*                                                                         */
/* A walk over the ir (O(#types+#entities)) computes the transitive        */
/* closure.  Adding a new type/entity or changing the basic relations in   */
/* some other way invalidates the transitive closure, i.e., it is not      */
/* updated by the basic functions.                                         */
/*                                                                         */
/* The transitive edges are held in a set, not in an array as the          */
/* underlying relation.                                                    */
/*                                                                         */
/* Do the sets contain the node itself?  I assume NOT!                     */
/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------- */

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/**
 * The state of the transitive closure.
 */
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typedef enum {
	inh_transitive_closure_none,       /**<  Closure is not computed, can not be accessed. */
	inh_transitive_closure_valid,      /**<  Closure computed and valid. */
	inh_transitive_closure_invalid,    /**<  Closure invalid, but can be accessed. */
	inh_transitive_closure_max         /**<  Invalid value. */
} inh_transitive_closure_state;

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/** Sets the transitive closure of sub/superclass state for the
 * whole program. */
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FIRM_API void set_irp_inh_transitive_closure_state(inh_transitive_closure_state s);
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/** Sets the transitive closure of sub/superclass state for the
 * whole program to #inh_transitive_closure_invalid */
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FIRM_API void invalidate_irp_inh_transitive_closure_state(void);
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/** Returns the transitive closure of sub/superclass state for the
 * whole program. */
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FIRM_API inh_transitive_closure_state get_irp_inh_transitive_closure_state(void);
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/** Compute transitive closure of the subclass/superclass and
 * overwrites/overwrittenby relation.
 *
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 * This function walks over the ir (O(\#types+\#entities)) to compute the
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 * transitive closure.    */
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FIRM_API void compute_inh_transitive_closure(void);
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/** Free memory occupied by the transitive closure information. */
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FIRM_API void free_inh_transitive_closure(void);
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/** Start iteration over all transitive subtypes of @p tp */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_class_trans_subtype_first(const ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * Returns next type in a subtype iteration started by
 * get_class_trans_subtype_first()
 */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_class_trans_subtype_next(const ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * Check if @p subtp is a subtype of @p tp. This function checks the full
 * transitive closure of the subtype relation and not just direct subtyping.
 * @return 1 if it is a subtype, 0 otherwise
 */
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FIRM_API int is_class_trans_subtype(const ir_type *tp, const ir_type *subtp);
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/** Start iteration over all transitive supertypes of @p tp */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_class_trans_supertype_first(const ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * Returns next type in a supertype iteration started by
 * get_class_trans_supertype_first()
 */
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FIRM_API ir_type *get_class_trans_supertype_next(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Start iteration over all entities that transitive overwrite entity @p ent.*/
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_trans_overwrittenby_first(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Returns next entity in a overwrittenby iteration started by
 * get_entity_trans_overwrittenby_first()
 */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_trans_overwrittenby_next(const ir_entity *ent);
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/** Start iteration over all transitive overwritten entities, overwritten by
 * entity @p ent */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_trans_overwrites_first(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Returns next entity in a overwrites iteration started by
 * get_entity_trans_overwrites_first()
 */
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FIRM_API ir_entity *get_entity_trans_overwrites_next(const ir_entity *ent);
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/**
 * Checks a type.
 *
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FIRM_API int check_type(const ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * Walks the type information and performs a set of sanity checks.
 *
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FIRM_API int tr_verify(void);
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/**
 * Frees the memory used by the type.
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 *
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 * Removes the type from the type list and frees all entities
 * belonging to the type.
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 */
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FIRM_API void free_type(ir_type *tp);
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/** Returns type opcode of type @p tp */
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FIRM_API const tp_op *get_type_tpop(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Returns name identifier of type opcode of type @p tp */
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FIRM_API ident *get_type_tpop_nameid(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Returns name of type opcode of type @p tp */
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FIRM_API const char *get_type_tpop_name(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Returns opcode of type opcode of type @p tp */
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FIRM_API tp_opcode get_type_tpop_code(const ir_type *tp);
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/**
 * construct a string representing the type.
 * This uses the info retrieved by the type_dbg_info if available.
 * Otherwise it tries to create an approximate textual representation of the
 * type.
 * Keep in mind that this representation is not unique for each type,
 * might abstract away some details. The main intention of this is creating
 * human redable strings giving an idea of the type.
 */
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FIRM_API void ir_print_type(char *buffer, size_t buffer_size,
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                            const ir_type *tp);
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/** The state of the type layout. */
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typedef enum {
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	layout_undefined,    /**< The layout of this type is not defined.
	                          Address computation to access fields is not
	                          possible, fields must be accessed by Sel
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	                          nodes.
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	                          This is the default value except for
	                          pointer, primitive and method types. */
	layout_fixed         /**< The layout is fixed, all component/member entities
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	                          have an offset assigned. Size of the type is
	                          known. Arrays can be accessed by explicit address
	                          computation.
	                          Default for pointer, primitive and method types.
	                          */
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} ir_type_state;
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/** Returns a human readable string for the enum entry. */
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FIRM_API const char *get_type_state_name(ir_type_state s);
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/** Returns the type layout state of a type. */
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FIRM_API ir_type_state get_type_state(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Sets the type layout state of a type.
 *
 * For primitives, pointer and method types the layout is always fixed.
 * This call is legal but has no effect.
 */
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FIRM_API void set_type_state(ir_type *tp, ir_type_state state);
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/** Returns the mode of a type.
 *
 * Returns NULL for all non atomic types.
 */
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FIRM_API ir_mode *get_type_mode(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Sets the mode of a type.
 *
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 * Only has an effect on primitive and pointer types.
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 */
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FIRM_API void set_type_mode(ir_type *tp, ir_mode* m);
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/** Returns the size of a type in bytes. */
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FIRM_API unsigned get_type_size_bytes(const ir_type *tp);
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/** Sets the size of a type in bytes.
 *
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 * For primitive, pointer and method types the size is always fixed.
 * This call is legal but has no effect.
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 */
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FIRM_API void set_type_size_bytes(ir_type *tp, unsigned size);
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/** Returns the alignment of a type in bytes. */
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FIRM_API unsigned get_type_alignment_bytes(const ir_type *tp);
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