betranshlp.c 23.3 KB
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/*
 * This file is part of libFirm.
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 * Copyright (C) 2012 University of Karlsruhe.
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 */

/**
 * @file
 * @brief       be transform helper extracted from the ia32 backend.
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 * @author      Matthias Braun, Michael Beck
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 * @date        14.06.2007
 */
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#include "bearch.h"
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#include "beirg.h"
#include "belive.h"
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#include "benode.h"
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#include "betranshlp.h"
#include "cgana.h"
#include "debug.h"
#include "execfreq_t.h"
#include "heights.h"
#include "ircons_t.h"
#include "iredges.h"
#include "irgmod.h"
#include "irgraph_t.h"
#include "irgwalk.h"
#include "irhooks.h"
#include "irnodemap.h"
#include "irnode_t.h"
#include "irop_t.h"
#include "iropt_t.h"
#include "irouts.h"
#include "irtools.h"
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#include "panic.h"
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#include "pdeq.h"
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#include "util.h"
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typedef struct be_transform_env_t {
	waitq    *worklist;    /**< worklist of nodes that still need to be
	                            transformed */
} be_transform_env_t;

static be_transform_env_t env;

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void be_set_transformed_node(ir_node *old_node, ir_node *new_node)
{
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	set_irn_link(old_node, new_node);
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	mark_irn_visited(old_node);
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}

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bool be_is_transformed(const ir_node *node)
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{
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	return irn_visited(node);
}

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ir_node *be_transform_phi(ir_node *node, const arch_register_req_t *req)
{
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	ir_node  *block = be_transform_nodes_block(node);
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	ir_graph *irg   = get_irn_irg(block);
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	dbg_info *dbgi  = get_irn_dbg_info(node);

	/* phi nodes allow loops, so we use the old arguments for now
	 * and fix this later */
	ir_node **ins   = get_irn_in(node)+1;
	int       arity = get_irn_arity(node);
	ir_mode  *mode  = req->cls != NULL ? req->cls->mode : get_irn_mode(node);
	ir_node  *phi   = new_ir_node(dbgi, irg, block, op_Phi, mode, arity, ins);
	copy_node_attr(irg, node, phi);

	backend_info_t *info = be_get_info(phi);
	struct obstack *obst = be_get_be_obst(irg);
	info->in_reqs = OALLOCN(obst, const arch_register_req_t*, arity);
	for (int i = 0; i < arity; ++i) {
		info->in_reqs[i] = req;
	}

	arch_set_irn_register_req_out(phi, 0, req);
	be_enqueue_preds(node);

	return phi;
}

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void be_set_transform_function(ir_op *op, be_transform_func func)
{
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	/* Shouldn't be assigned twice. */
	assert(!op->ops.generic);
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	op->ops.generic = (op_func) func;
}

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void be_set_transform_proj_function(ir_op *op, be_transform_func func)
{
	op->ops.generic1 = (op_func) func;
}

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/**
 * Transform helper for blocks.
 */
static ir_node *transform_block(ir_node *node)
{
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	ir_graph *irg   = get_irn_irg(node);
	dbg_info *dbgi  = get_irn_dbg_info(node);
	ir_mode  *mode  = get_irn_mode(node);
	ir_node  *block = new_ir_node(dbgi, irg, NULL, get_irn_op(node), mode,
	                              get_irn_arity(node), get_irn_in(node) + 1);
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	copy_node_attr(irg, node, block);
	block->node_nr = node->node_nr;

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	/* transfer execfreq value */
	double execfreq = get_block_execfreq(node);
	set_block_execfreq(block, execfreq);

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	/* put the preds in the worklist */
	be_enqueue_preds(node);

	return block;
}

static ir_node *transform_end(ir_node *node)
{
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	/* Do not transform predecessors yet to keep the pre-transform
	 * phase from visiting all the graph. */
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	ir_graph *irg     = get_irn_irg(node);
	dbg_info *dbgi    = get_irn_dbg_info(node);
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	ir_node  *block   = be_transform_nodes_block(node);
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	int       arity   = get_irn_arity(node);
	ir_node **ins     = get_irn_in(node) + 1;
	ir_node  *new_end = new_ir_node(dbgi, irg, block, op_End, mode_X, arity, ins);
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	copy_node_attr(irg, node, new_end);

	set_irg_end(irg, new_end);

	be_enqueue_preds(node);

	return new_end;
}

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static ir_node *transform_proj(ir_node *node)
{
	ir_node *pred    = get_Proj_pred(node);
	ir_op   *pred_op = get_irn_op(pred);
	be_transform_func *proj_transform
		= (be_transform_func*)pred_op->ops.generic1;
	/* we should have a Proj transformer registered */
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#ifdef DEBUG_libfirm
	if (!proj_transform) {
		unsigned const node_pn = get_Proj_num(node);
		if (is_Proj(pred)) {
			unsigned const pred_pn   = get_Proj_num(pred);
			ir_node *const pred_pred = get_Proj_pred(pred);
			panic("no transformer for %+F (%u) -> %+F (%u) -> %+F", node, node_pn, pred, pred_pn, pred_pred);
		} else {
			panic("no transformer for %+F (%u) -> %+F", node, node_pn, pred);
		}
	}
#endif
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	return proj_transform(node);
}

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ir_node *be_duplicate_node(ir_node *const node)
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{
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	int       const arity = get_irn_arity(node);
	ir_node **const ins   = ALLOCAN(ir_node*, arity);
	foreach_irn_in(node, i, in) {
		ins[i] = be_transform_node(in);
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	}

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	ir_node *const block    = be_transform_nodes_block(node);
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	ir_node *const new_node = new_similar_node(node, block, ins);

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	new_node->node_nr = node->node_nr;
	return new_node;
}

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ir_node *be_transform_node(ir_node *node)
{
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	ir_node *new_node;
	if (be_is_transformed(node)) {
		new_node = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(node);
	} else {
		DEBUG_ONLY(be_set_transformed_node(node, NULL);)

		ir_op             *const op        = get_irn_op(node);
		be_transform_func *const transform = (be_transform_func*)op->ops.generic;
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#ifdef DEBUG_libfirm
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		if (!transform)
			panic("no transformer for %+F", node);
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#endif
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		new_node = transform(node);
		be_set_transformed_node(node, new_node);
	}
	assert(new_node);
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	return new_node;
}

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ir_node *be_transform_nodes_block(ir_node const *const node)
{
	ir_node *const block = get_nodes_block(node);
	return be_transform_node(block);
}

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void be_enqueue_preds(ir_node *node)
{
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	/* put the preds in the worklist */
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	foreach_irn_in(node, i, pred) {
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		pdeq_putr(env.worklist, pred);
	}
}

/**
 * Rewire nodes which are potential loops (like Phis) to avoid endless loops.
 */
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static void fix_loops(ir_node *node)
{
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	if (irn_visited_else_mark(node))
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		return;

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	bool changed = false;
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	if (! is_Block(node)) {
		ir_node *block     = get_nodes_block(node);
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		ir_node *new_block = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(block);
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		if (new_block != NULL) {
			set_nodes_block(node, new_block);
			block = new_block;
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			changed = true;
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		}

		fix_loops(block);
	}

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	foreach_irn_in(node, i, pred) {
		ir_node *in = pred;
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		ir_node *nw = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(in);
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		if (nw != NULL && nw != in) {
			set_irn_n(node, i, nw);
			in = nw;
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			changed = true;
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		}

		fix_loops(in);
	}

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	if (changed) {
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		identify_remember(node);
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	}
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}

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ir_node *be_pre_transform_node(ir_node *place)
{
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	if (place == NULL)
		return NULL;

	return be_transform_node(place);
}

/**
 * Transforms all nodes. Deletes the old obstack and creates a new one.
 */
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static void transform_nodes(ir_graph *irg, arch_pretrans_nodes *pre_transform)
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{
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	hook_dead_node_elim(irg, 1);

	inc_irg_visited(irg);

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	env.worklist = new_waitq();
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	ir_node *const old_anchor = irg->anchor;
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	ir_node *const new_anchor = new_r_Anchor(irg);
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	ir_node *const old_end    = get_irg_end(irg);
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	irg->anchor = new_anchor;
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	/* Pre-transform all anchors (so they are available in the other transform
	 * functions) and put them into the worklist. */
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	foreach_irn_in(old_anchor, i, old) {
		ir_node *const nw = be_transform_node(old);
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		set_irn_n(new_anchor, i, nw);
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	}
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	if (pre_transform)
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		pre_transform(irg);
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	/* process worklist (this should transform all nodes in the graph) */
	while (! waitq_empty(env.worklist)) {
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		ir_node *node = (ir_node*)waitq_get(env.worklist);
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		be_transform_node(node);
	}

	/* fix loops and set new anchors*/
	inc_irg_visited(irg);
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	foreach_irn_in_r(old_anchor, i, n) {
		ir_node *const anchor = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(n);
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		fix_loops(anchor);
	}

	del_waitq(env.worklist);
	free_End(old_end);
	hook_dead_node_elim(irg, 0);
}

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void be_transform_graph(ir_graph *irg, arch_pretrans_nodes *func)
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{
	/* create a new obstack */
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	struct obstack old_obst = irg->obst;
	obstack_init(&irg->obst);
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	irg->last_node_idx = 0;

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	free_vrp_data(irg);
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	/* create new value table for CSE */
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	new_identities(irg);
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	/* do the main transformation */
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	transform_nodes(irg, func);
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	/* free the old obstack */
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	obstack_free(&old_obst, 0);
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	/* most analysis info is wrong after transformation */
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	be_invalidate_live_chk(irg);
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	confirm_irg_properties(irg, IR_GRAPH_PROPERTIES_NONE);
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	/* recalculate edges */
	edges_activate(irg);
}
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bool be_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	ir_op *op = get_irn_op(node);
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	if (op->ops.generic2 == NULL)
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		return false;
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	upper_bits_clean_func func = (upper_bits_clean_func)op->ops.generic2;
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	return func(node, mode);
}

static bool bit_binop_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	return be_upper_bits_clean(get_binop_left(node), mode)
	    && be_upper_bits_clean(get_binop_right(node), mode);
}

static bool mux_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	return be_upper_bits_clean(get_Mux_true(node), mode)
	    && be_upper_bits_clean(get_Mux_false(node), mode);
}

static bool and_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	if (!mode_is_signed(mode)) {
		return be_upper_bits_clean(get_And_left(node), mode)
		    || be_upper_bits_clean(get_And_right(node), mode);
	} else {
		return bit_binop_upper_bits_clean(node, mode);
	}
}

static bool shr_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	if (mode_is_signed(mode)) {
		return false;
	} else {
		const ir_node *right = get_Shr_right(node);
		if (is_Const(right)) {
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			long const val = get_Const_long(right);
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			if (val >= 32 - (long)get_mode_size_bits(mode))
				return true;
		}
		return be_upper_bits_clean(get_Shr_left(node), mode);
	}
}

static bool shrs_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	return be_upper_bits_clean(get_Shrs_left(node), mode);
}

static bool const_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
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	long const val = get_Const_long(node);
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	if (mode_is_signed(mode)) {
		long    shifted = val >> (get_mode_size_bits(mode)-1);
		return shifted == 0 || shifted == -1;
	} else {
		unsigned long shifted = (unsigned long)val;
		shifted >>= get_mode_size_bits(mode)-1;
		shifted >>= 1;
		return shifted == 0;
	}
}

static bool conv_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	ir_mode       *dest_mode = get_irn_mode(node);
	const ir_node *op        = get_Conv_op(node);
	ir_mode       *src_mode  = get_irn_mode(op);
	if (mode_is_float(src_mode))
		return true;

	unsigned src_bits  = get_mode_size_bits(src_mode);
	unsigned dest_bits = get_mode_size_bits(dest_mode);
	/* downconvs are a nop */
	if (src_bits >= dest_bits)
		return be_upper_bits_clean(op, mode);
	/* upconvs are fine if src is big enough or if sign matches */
	if (src_bits <= get_mode_size_bits(mode)
		&& mode_is_signed(src_mode) == mode_is_signed(mode))
		return true;
	return false;
}

static bool proj_upper_bits_clean(const ir_node *node, ir_mode *mode)
{
	const ir_node *pred = get_Proj_pred(node);
	switch (get_irn_opcode(pred)) {
	case iro_Load: {
		ir_mode *load_mode = get_Load_mode(pred);
		unsigned load_bits = get_mode_size_bits(load_mode);
		if (load_bits > get_mode_size_bits(mode))
			return false;
		if (mode_is_signed(load_mode) != mode_is_signed(mode))
			return false;
		return true;
	}
	default:
		break;
	}
	return false;
}

void be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(ir_op *op, upper_bits_clean_func func)
{
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	op->ops.generic2 = (op_func)func;
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}

void be_start_transform_setup(void)
{
	ir_clear_opcodes_generic_func();

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	be_set_transform_function(op_Block, transform_block);
	be_set_transform_function(op_End,   transform_end);
	be_set_transform_function(op_NoMem, be_duplicate_node);
	be_set_transform_function(op_Pin,   be_duplicate_node);
	be_set_transform_function(op_Proj,  transform_proj);
	be_set_transform_function(op_Sync,  be_duplicate_node);
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	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_And,   and_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Const, const_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Conv,  conv_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Eor,   bit_binop_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Mux,   mux_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Or,    bit_binop_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Proj,  proj_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Shr,   shr_upper_bits_clean);
	be_set_upper_bits_clean_function(op_Shrs,  shrs_upper_bits_clean);
}
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bool be_pattern_is_rotl(ir_node const *const irn_or, ir_node **const left,
                        ir_node **const right)
{
	assert(is_Add(irn_or) || is_Or(irn_or));

	ir_mode *mode = get_irn_mode(irn_or);
	if (!mode_is_int(mode))
		return false;

	ir_node *shl = get_binop_left(irn_or);
	ir_node *shr = get_binop_right(irn_or);
	if (is_Shr(shl)) {
		if (!is_Shl(shr))
			return false;

		ir_node *tmp = shl;
		shl = shr;
		shr = tmp;
	} else if (!is_Shl(shl)) {
		return false;
	} else if (!is_Shr(shr)) {
		return false;
	}

	ir_node *x = get_Shl_left(shl);
	if (x != get_Shr_left(shr))
		return false;

	ir_node *c1 = get_Shl_right(shl);
	ir_node *c2 = get_Shr_right(shr);
	if (is_Const(c1) && is_Const(c2)) {
		ir_tarval *tv1 = get_Const_tarval(c1);
		if (!tarval_is_long(tv1))
			return false;

		ir_tarval *tv2 = get_Const_tarval(c2);
		if (!tarval_is_long(tv2))
			return false;

		if (get_tarval_long(tv1) + get_tarval_long(tv2)
		    != (long) get_mode_size_bits(mode))
			return false;

		*left  = x;
		*right = c1;
		return true;
	}

	/* Note: the obvious rot formulation (a << x) | (a >> (32-x)) gets
	 * transformed to (a << x) | (a >> -x) by transform_node_shift_modulo() */
	if (!ir_is_negated_value(c1, c2))
		return false;

	*left  = x;
	*right = c1;
	return true;
}
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void be_map_exc_node_to_runtime_call(ir_node *node, ir_mode *res_mode,
                                     ir_entity *runtime_entity,
                                     long pn_M, long pn_X_regular,
                                     long pn_X_except, long pn_res)
{
	assert(is_memop(node));

	size_t    n_in = get_irn_arity(node)-1;
	ir_node **in   = ALLOCAN(ir_node*, n_in);
	ir_type  *mtp  = get_entity_type(runtime_entity);

	assert(get_method_n_params(mtp) == n_in);
	size_t p = 0;
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	foreach_irn_in(node, i, n) {
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		if (get_irn_mode(n) == mode_M)
			continue;
		in[p++] = n;
	}
	assert(p == n_in);

	ir_graph *irg   = get_irn_irg(node);
	dbg_info *dbgi  = get_irn_dbg_info(node);
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	ir_node  *addr  = new_r_Address(irg, runtime_entity);
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	ir_node  *block = get_nodes_block(node);
	ir_node  *mem   = get_memop_mem(node);
	ir_node  *call  = new_rd_Call(dbgi, block, mem, addr, n_in, in, mtp);
	set_irn_pinned(call, get_irn_pinned(node));
	int throws_exception = ir_throws_exception(node);
	ir_set_throws_exception(call, throws_exception);

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	assert(pn_M < 2 && pn_res < 2 && pn_X_regular < 4 && pn_X_except < 4);
	int const         n_proj     = 4;
	int               n_operands = 2;
	ir_node   **const tuple_in   = ALLOCAN(ir_node*, n_proj);
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	tuple_in[pn_M] = new_r_Proj(call, mode_M, pn_Call_M);
	ir_node *ress = new_r_Proj(call, mode_T, pn_Call_T_result);
	tuple_in[pn_res] = new_r_Proj(ress, res_mode, 0);
	if (throws_exception) {
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		tuple_in[pn_X_regular]  = new_r_Proj(call, mode_X, pn_Call_X_regular);
		tuple_in[pn_X_except]   = new_r_Proj(call, mode_X, pn_Call_X_except);
		n_operands             += 2;
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	}

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	turn_into_tuple(node, n_operands, tuple_in);
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}
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/**
 * Link the node into its block list as a new head.
 */
static void collect_node(ir_node *node)
{
	ir_node *block = get_nodes_block(node);
	ir_node *old   = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(block);

	set_irn_link(node, old);
	set_irn_link(block, node);
}

/**
 * Post-walker: link all nodes that probably access the stack into lists of their block.
 */
static void link_ops_in_block_walker(ir_node *node, void *data)
{
	(void) data;

	switch (get_irn_opcode(node)) {
	case iro_Return:
	case iro_Call:
		collect_node(node);
		break;
	case iro_Alloc:
		/** all non-stack alloc nodes should be lowered before the backend */
		collect_node(node);
		break;
	case iro_Free:
		collect_node(node);
		break;
	case iro_Builtin:
		if (get_Builtin_kind(node) == ir_bk_return_address) {
			ir_node *const param = get_Builtin_param(node, 0);
			long     const value = get_Const_long(param); /* must be Const */
			if (value > 0) {
				/* not the return address of the current function:
				 * we need the stack pointer for the frame climbing */
				collect_node(node);
			}
		}
		break;
	default:
		break;
	}
}

static ir_heights_t *heights;

/**
 * Check if a node is somehow data dependent on another one.
 * both nodes must be in the same basic block.
 * @param n1 The first node.
 * @param n2 The second node.
 * @return 1, if n1 is data dependent (transitively) on n2, 0 if not.
 */
static int dependent_on(const ir_node *n1, const ir_node *n2)
{
	assert(get_nodes_block(n1) == get_nodes_block(n2));
	return heights_reachable_in_block(heights, n1, n2);
}

/**
 * Classical qsort() comparison function behavior:
 *
 * 0  if both elements are equal, no node depend on the other
 * +1 if first depends on second (first is greater)
 * -1 if second depends on first (second is greater)
*/
static int cmp_call_dependency(const void *c1, const void *c2)
{
	const ir_node *n1 = *(const ir_node **) c1;
	const ir_node *n2 = *(const ir_node **) c2;
	if (dependent_on(n1, n2))
		return 1;
	if (dependent_on(n2, n1))
		return -1;

	/* The nodes have no depth order, but we need a total order because qsort()
	 * is not stable.
	 *
	 * Additionally, we need to respect transitive dependencies. Consider a
	 * Call a depending on Call b and an independent Call c.
	 * We MUST NOT order c > a and b > c. */
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	unsigned h1 = get_irn_height(heights, n1);
	unsigned h2 = get_irn_height(heights, n2);
	if (h1 < h2)
		return 1;
	if (h1 > h2)
		return -1;
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	/* Same height, so use a random (but stable) order */
	return get_irn_idx(n2) - get_irn_idx(n1);
}

/**
 * Block-walker: sorts dependencies and remember them into a phase
 */
static void process_ops_in_block(ir_node *block, void *data)
{
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	ir_nodemap *map     = (ir_nodemap*)data;
	unsigned    n_nodes = 0;
	for (ir_node *node = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(block); node != NULL;
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	     node = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(node)) {
		++n_nodes;
	}
	if (n_nodes == 0)
		return;

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	ir_node **nodes = XMALLOCN(ir_node*, n_nodes);
	unsigned  n     = 0;
	for (ir_node *node = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(block); node != NULL;
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	     node = (ir_node*)get_irn_link(node)) {
		nodes[n++] = node;
	}
	assert(n == n_nodes);

	/* order nodes according to their data dependencies */
	QSORT(nodes, n_nodes, cmp_call_dependency);

	/* remember the calculated dependency into a phase */
	for (n = n_nodes-1; n > 0; --n) {
		ir_node *node = nodes[n];
		ir_node *pred = nodes[n-1];

		ir_nodemap_insert(map, node, pred);
	}
	free(nodes);
}

struct be_stackorder_t {
	ir_nodemap stack_order; /**< a phase to handle stack dependencies. */
};

be_stackorder_t *be_collect_stacknodes(ir_graph *irg)
{
	be_stackorder_t *env = XMALLOCZ(be_stackorder_t);

	ir_reserve_resources(irg, IR_RESOURCE_IRN_LINK);

	/* collect all potential^stack accessing nodes */
	irg_walk_graph(irg, firm_clear_link, link_ops_in_block_walker, NULL);

	ir_nodemap_init(&env->stack_order, irg);

	/* use heights to create a total order for those nodes: this order is stored
	 * in the created phase */
	heights = heights_new(irg);
	irg_block_walk_graph(irg, NULL, process_ops_in_block, &env->stack_order);
	heights_free(heights);

	ir_free_resources(irg, IR_RESOURCE_IRN_LINK);

	return env;
}

ir_node *be_get_stack_pred(const be_stackorder_t *env, const ir_node *node)
{
	return ir_nodemap_get(ir_node, &env->stack_order, node);
}

void be_free_stackorder(be_stackorder_t *env)
{
	ir_nodemap_destroy(&env->stack_order);
	free(env);
}

static void create_stores_for_type(ir_graph *irg, ir_type *type)
{
	ir_node *frame       = get_irg_frame(irg);
	ir_node *initial_mem = get_irg_initial_mem(irg);
	ir_node *mem         = initial_mem;
	ir_node *first_store = NULL;
	ir_node *start_block = get_irg_start_block(irg);
	ir_node *args        = get_irg_args(irg);

	/* all parameter entities left in the frame type require stores.
	 * (The ones passed on the stack have been moved to the arg type) */
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	for (size_t i = 0, n = get_compound_n_members(type); i < n; ++i) {
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		ir_entity *entity = get_compound_member(type, i);
		ir_type   *tp     = get_entity_type(entity);
		if (!is_parameter_entity(entity))
			continue;

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		size_t arg = get_entity_parameter_number(entity);
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		if (arg == IR_VA_START_PARAMETER_NUMBER)
			continue;

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		ir_node *addr = new_r_Member(start_block, frame, entity);
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		if (entity->attr.parameter.doubleword_low_mode != NULL) {
			ir_mode *mode      = entity->attr.parameter.doubleword_low_mode;
			ir_node *val0      = new_r_Proj(args, mode, arg);
			ir_node *val1      = new_r_Proj(args, mode, arg+1);
			ir_node *store0    = new_r_Store(start_block, mem, addr, val0,
			                                 tp, cons_none);
			ir_node *mem0      = new_r_Proj(store0, mode_M, pn_Store_M);
			size_t   offset    = get_mode_size_bits(mode)/8;
			ir_mode *mode_ref  = get_irn_mode(addr);
			ir_mode *mode_offs = get_reference_mode_unsigned_eq(mode_ref);
			ir_node *cnst      = new_r_Const_long(irg, mode_offs, offset);
			ir_node *next_addr = new_r_Add(start_block, addr, cnst, mode_ref);
			ir_node *store1    = new_r_Store(start_block, mem0, next_addr, val1,
			                                 tp, cons_none);
			mem = new_r_Proj(store1, mode_M, pn_Store_M);
			if (first_store == NULL)
				first_store = store0;
		} else {
			ir_mode *mode  = is_compound_type(tp) ? mode_P : get_type_mode(tp);
			ir_node *val   = new_r_Proj(args, mode, arg);
			ir_node *store = new_r_Store(start_block, mem, addr, val, tp, cons_none);
			mem = new_r_Proj(store, mode_M, pn_Store_M);
			if (first_store == NULL)
				first_store = store;
		}
	}

	if (mem != initial_mem) {
		edges_reroute_except(initial_mem, mem, first_store);
		set_irg_initial_mem(irg, initial_mem);
	}
}

void be_add_parameter_entity_stores(ir_graph *irg)
{
	ir_type           *frame_type   = get_irg_frame_type(irg);
	be_stack_layout_t *layout       = be_get_irg_stack_layout(irg);
	ir_type           *between_type = layout->between_type;

	create_stores_for_type(irg, frame_type);
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	if (between_type != NULL)
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		create_stores_for_type(irg, between_type);
}

unsigned be_get_n_allocatable_regs(const ir_graph *irg,
                                   const arch_register_class_t *cls)
{
	unsigned *const bs = rbitset_alloca(cls->n_regs);
	be_get_allocatable_regs(irg, cls, bs);
	return rbitset_popcount(bs, cls->n_regs);
}

void be_get_allocatable_regs(ir_graph const *const irg,
                             arch_register_class_t const *const cls,
                             unsigned *const raw_bitset)
{
	be_irg_t *birg             = be_birg_from_irg(irg);
	unsigned *allocatable_regs = birg->allocatable_regs;

	rbitset_clear_all(raw_bitset, cls->n_regs);
	for (unsigned i = 0; i < cls->n_regs; ++i) {
		const arch_register_t *reg = &cls->regs[i];
		if (rbitset_is_set(allocatable_regs, reg->global_index))
			rbitset_set(raw_bitset, i);
	}
}
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uint32_t be_get_tv_bits32(ir_tarval *const tv, unsigned const offset)
{
	uint32_t val;
	val  = (uint32_t)get_tarval_sub_bits(tv, offset);
	val |= (uint32_t)get_tarval_sub_bits(tv, offset + 1) <<  8;
	val |= (uint32_t)get_tarval_sub_bits(tv, offset + 2) << 16;
	val |= (uint32_t)get_tarval_sub_bits(tv, offset + 3) << 24;
	return val;
}
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static bool mode_needs_gp_reg(ir_mode *const mode)
{
	return get_mode_arithmetic(mode) == irma_twos_complement;
}

ir_node *be_skip_downconv(ir_node *node, bool const single_user)
{
	assert(mode_needs_gp_reg(get_irn_mode(node)));
	for (;;) {
		if (single_user && get_irn_n_edges(node) > 1) {
			/* we only want to skip the conv when we're the only user
			 * (because this test is used in the context of address-mode selection
			 *  and we don't want to use address mode for multiple users) */
			break;
		} else if (is_Conv(node)) {
			ir_node *const op       = get_Conv_op(node);
			ir_mode *const src_mode = get_irn_mode(op);
			if (!mode_needs_gp_reg(src_mode) || get_mode_size_bits(get_irn_mode(node)) > get_mode_size_bits(src_mode))
				break;
			node = op;
		} else {
			break;
		}
	}
	return node;
}